lunes, 24 de mayo de 2010

The world population

The occident. Because in the map, it is the most spread region.


India, China and Russia.

Is all territory densely populated?

China: The most populated regions are Shangai, Hong Kong, Beijing, Chengdu, Chongking.
India: Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Myderabad, Chennai.
Russia: Moscow, Nobo Sivirsk, Vladivostok, Sankt-Petesburg, Volgograd.

Spread of the potato

The potato spread started in Peru, and it spread in America, to the South and to the North.Then the potato spread into Spain by the Spanish invasion in South America in the 1500s.

In the 1600s the potato appeared in Africa and Japan. In 1769, the potato spread into New Zealand.
I think that the potato spread very quickly in all the world.

Charles V and the Holy Roman Empire

Where was born Charles V?
He was born in Ghent on February 24, 1500.

Could Charles V make decisions alone?
No, he work with other people too.

Whose approval did he need before increasing taxes, for example?

The decisions about taxes needed the approval of the Parliments of each kingdom.

Who were the children of Charles I?
Felipe II of Spain, Maria de Hasburgo, Fernando, Juana de austria and Juan.

Who ruled each territory in the king’s name?
A viceroy or governor

Why did the king need to ask for loans?Because the taxes alone were not enough to finance his policies.

Why did Charles V have problems with France?
Because France was his main rival for supremacy in Europe.

The main battles against France: He said four wars with Francis I of France, who also aspired to the imperial crown, and that Charles demanded the return of Burgundy.
*In the first war (1521-1526), France, seized Milan and helped Henry II to restore the Kingdom of Navarre, after its conquest in 1512.
*In the second war (1526-1529) the imperial troops stormed and sacked Rome (Sack of Rome), forcing Pope Clement VII, an ally of Francis I, after the League of Cognac ", to take refuge in the Castel Sant'Angelo.
*The third (1535-1538) was produced by the French invasion of the Duchy of Savoy, an ally of Spain, with the intention to continue to Milan.
*The fourth (1542-1544) ended because of renewed conflict with the Protestants in Germany.

Why were the Ottoman Turks his rivals?
They were a constant threat in the Mediterranean and along the eastern boundary of The Holy Roman Empire.

The main battles against the Ottoman Empire
: The Battle of Mohacs

Martin Luther and the German Reformation

1. (a) Describe the event that is taking place in the source
shown on the right.
Martin Luther is writing something on the door of a Church or Cathedral.
(b)Mention one immediate consequence of this event.
I think he is showing a new cathedral or church.

1. Explain the following terms:
(a)justification by faith: Martin Luther discovered the first Bible
(b) indulgences: Documents issued by the Pope to pardon sins for money
(c) Papal bull: Through his bulls, popes have been declaring their willingness to their faithful.
(d) excommunicated: Pope denied the right to take the Holy Host
(e) heretic: they were persecuted by the Inquisition
(f) clerical celibacy: Not being married and in the use of the Church, a commitment not to marry. The Church makes a distinction between celibacy lay and ecclesiastical celibacy. In both cases, freely chosen, for religious reasons, not married.

2. Write briefly four important landmarks in the life of Martin Luther.
The excommunication
The justification by faith


1. Why was the Council of Trent summoned? It was to stop the Protestant movement and improve conditions in the church.

2. Identify three conclusions reached at this Council.

(a) New ways of spreding Catholicism

(b) New religious orders were former
(c)They formed the Society of Jesus

3. Name five countries in Europe where the Counter-Reformation was successful and one country

where it was not.

(a) Successful in: Spain, France, Italy, Germany and
(b) Unsuccessful in: England and Scotland.

domingo, 23 de mayo de 2010



Marco Polo: He was a navegator who made a lot of journeys to discovered the world
Technical advances: They were the portulan charts, the navigational instruments and ships
Portulan Charts: They were new maps that showed the coastline and any obstacles
Compass: it was a new navigational instrument which marked the north
astrolabe: It is a historical astronomical instrumentused by astronomers, navigators, and astrologers. Its many uses include locating and predicting the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars; determining local time
Quadrant: A quadrant is an instrument that is used to measure angles up to 90°.
Caravels: A 'caravel' is a small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by thePortuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean.
Prince Henry the Navigator: was an infante (prince) of the Kingdom of Portugal and an important figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire, being responsible for the beginning of the European worldwide explorations.
Bartolomeu Dias: He rounded the Cape of Good Hope
Vasco de Gama: He reached India
Christopher Columbus: He was a Genoese sailor
Ferdinand Magallan: He captained the Magellan's expedition.
Juan Sebastian Elcano: He was the second-in-command
Overseas empires: great empires
Treaty of Tordesillas: unexplored regions were divided by this.
Indigenous population of America


The plague: it was a illness which died more than a cuarter of the population. It broke in Europe in 1348.
The Black Death: is the same
Bourgueoisie: they were very influential too it was made up of rich and powerfull merchants.
bureaucracy: it was a centralised administration which depended directly on the monarch.
army: it was trops were paid by the monarch and followed his orders.
diplomatic: it was a system to maintain relation with oder countrys
autoritarian monarchies: they were formed by the monarchs.
Ivan the Great: he unified Rusia. He annexed new territories and made himself emperor
Henry VIII: he increased royal power in the early 16 century in England.
Charles VII: he unified France and consolidated their power.
Francis I: he helped Charles VII to unified France.
Catholic Monarchs: they were Isabella and Ferdinand. They governed the territories.
Holy brotherhood: a judicial police force to fight against bandins and the abuses of the nobility.
Royal Council: it was the highest judicial body.
Corregidores: they established royal authority in the towns.
Treasury: it was the system which controlled the paid and finances.
Tribunal of the Inquisition: they prosecuted the heretics.
conversos: they were Jews who became to christiany.
Mudejares: they were spanish muslims who lived in Spain
Moriscos: muslims who converted to christianity.

complete the information in these works

: Raphael
Work: The Holy Family with a lamb
Type of work: oil
Function or Subject: Religion. The Virgin Mary helps the baby Jesus riding on a lamb under the gaze of San Jose.
Decoration or Characteristics: The colors and brushstrokes are a very good match to the original.

: Donatello
Work: Statue of David
Type of work: bronze statue
Function or Subject: The statue shows the David's victory on Goliat.
Decoration or Characteristics: the first freestanding nude male sculpture

: Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera.
Work: The Monastery of el Escorial
Type of work: It's make by granite
Function or Subject: The king Philiph II gave the orders to construct the monastery to commemorate the victory of San Quintin's battle on the frenchmen on August 10, 1557.
Decoration or Characteristics: The monastery of El Escorial looks like an enormous horizontal, closed an hermetic structure splashed by the vertical accents of the towers that surround the central dome.

miércoles, 7 de abril de 2010


Leonardo da Vinci fue un pintor del siglo XV. Su infancia fue muy dura, ya que su padre se casó muchas veces y nunca tuvo un ejemplo de madre. Y él en vez de rendirse, siguio a delante y llegó a ser un gran pintor del siglo XV.